I've posted quite a bit about my own history - not so much about Hunky Husband's. Well...there's much of HH's history that I do not and will not ever know. I do, however, recall that our first contact was in the Summer of 1956.
HH was born in a Yugoslavian enclave across the river from St Louis, Missouri - in Granite City, Illinois. His paternal grandparents (from old Croatia, Yugoslavia) and maternal grandparents (from old Serbia, Yugoslavia) lived just three houses away from one another; thus, his parents (father born in Granite City, Illinois; mother in Serbia, Yugoslavia) knew one another while growing up. HH and his family (parents and two younger sisters) moved to St Louis at about the time when his father opened his first drug store.
HH attended high school at Soldan-Blewett (above photo), being graduated in 1954. Not knowing what else to do, HH enrolled in the St Louis College of Pharmacy. During his freshman year, HH determined that he did not wish to follow the family tradition of going into business for himself; thus, his freshman year was his only year in pharmacy.
Following high school graduation in 1954 one of HH's friends, Nate, had enrolled in the enginnering program at Washington University in St Louis - another, Don, had enrolled at MSM in Rolla. HH joined Nate, at Washington University (WU - AKA "Washout") for their sophomore year. (A WU building is shown in the photo, below. BTW: WU has an interesting YouTube site.)
At some point, Nate and HH earned their amateur radio licenses.
Early summer 1956
MSM's (now MS&T's) Radio Club call letters are WØEEE - a distinctive call when spoken; even more distinctive in Morse Code: di-dah-dah dah-dah-dah-dah-dah dit dit dit. The call is unmistakable and widely known in the area.
My license is still at the novice level; thus, on 40 and 80 meters (for which the folded-dipole antenna is tuned) I must use equipment limited to an output of 75 Watts (which sounds like a great deal of power these days), with frequency being crystal-controlled, and using Continuous Wave output (Morse Code). I am at the MSM Radio Club shack signing off from a chat with a friend in Arkansas when another ham gives me a hail (in Morse Code, of course!) It is a fellow in St Louis who wishes to get a message to his friend, Don - a student at MSM. Will I get a message to him? Of course, I would!
Later in the summer, one of my on-air ham friends mentions that the fellow in St Louis will be coming to MSM that fall.
At the first meeting of the MSM Radio Club in September, I make my way around to introducing myself to the fellow from St Louis. (He is a bit puzzled - not having known that a woman had relayed his message to Don.) Now I can put a face to the guy!
HH is "going steady" with a woman in St Louis when he comes to MSM and I am "steadily dating" a fellow student at the time. (Sorry, Bogie, it wasn't "love at first sight"!)
Over the year-end holidays, HH breaks up with his girlfriend and I break up with my boyfriend. Each of us returns to campus a couple of days early and we fall into easy conversation of co-commiseration. Nothing more.
In February 1957, I hear that Nate, HH's friend who is still attending WU in St Louis is coming to campus for a game between the two schools. I am intrigued. I have never known anyone with such an exotic name (Hey! Some of us only knew Ronalds and Donalds and Steves and Jims....) I engineer being invited to party with the gang from St Louis. I meet Nate. HH and I end up together - for years and years.
In scrounging around for photos of the campus for a previous posting, I ran across a bunch of photos that were taken in May 1957 recording a prank that my friends, fellow MSM Amateur Radio Club members played on me. They stole my shoes off of my feet - not just one pair, but a second pair that I had walked home barefoot to obtain. The first pair had been placed atop the Rolla Building - home to the humanities department. That building, one of the oldest on campus, played a large part in my campus life as its basement housed the MSM Amateur Radio Club. We had a folded-dipole antenna suspended between the smokestack of the powerplant and the top of the Rolla Building.
First, a photo of the Rolla Building (on the left) with a portion of the next-door mechanical engineering building (note the smokestack behind it.) You know that this is not a photo taken in my day because (1) no one was allowed to play games on campus, then, and (2) look at all of the women! (This photo is looking west.)
Now, a photo of the Rolla Building in May 1957 - with me on the roof to retrieve shoes. I'm the tiny speck at the base of the left-hand antenna mast - the folded-dipole isn't visible in this photo - which was taken looking north.
I have no idea who had the bright idea of taking pictures of the whole fiasco (about a full roll's worth); but, the photo club had its darkroom across the hall from the radio club's "shack". I'll spare you most of the photos; but the photo, below, shows toward the end of the melee.
Note that Bob (the guy in ROTC uniform, above) has at least one pair of my shoes.
After it was all over, Hunky Husband (we had started dating in February) took time to recoup, sitting on the top step of the stairs to the radio club "shack".
Since I ran into another photo of Hunky Husband, I'm posting it, below - for Bogie, mostly! The photo is from May 1958 and shows HH in the house that we shared with Elder Brother and his wife. We had married January 1, 1958.
BTW: Part of a mother's responsibility is to embarrass her kids. How am I doing, Bogie?
Drake Equation - determining how many intelligent civilizations are in the Milky Way (N):
where, R* is the rate at which life-supporting stars (not too big and not too small, but just right) form;
fp is the fraction of those life-supporting stars that has planets;
ne is the number of those planets, per star system, that is habitable;
fl is the fraction of the habitable planets where life develops;
fi is the fraction of that life that develops intelligence;
fc is the fraction of the intelligent life that uses electromagnetic communication;
and, L is the length of time that those intelligent creatures actually send electromagnetic waves into space.
The Drake equation can result in a very wide range of values, depending on the assumptions. Thanks to the existence of humans (an intelligent form of life capable of transmitting signals into space), however, we know that at least one civilization exists in the Milky Way galaxy that is capable of transmitting radio signals. That single fact establishes a lower limit for many of the factors in the Drake equation.
|Factor||Original Estimate (1961)||Current Estimate|
|R*||1 (one new star forms per year)||7 new stars forms per year — Source: NASA and ESA, Milky Way Churns Out Seven New Stars Per Year, Scientists Say|
|fp||0.2–0.5 (one-fifth to one-half of all stars formed will have planets)||Value approaches one; nearly all new stars have one or more planets — Source: Nature, One or more bound planets per Milky Way star from microlensing observations|
|ne||1–5 (each star with planets will have between one and five planets capable of developing life)||0.4 (40%) of stars with planets have a planet capable of supporting life — Source: NASA Kepler space mission data, Far-Off Planets Like the Earth Dot the Galaxy|
|fl||1 (100% of these planets will develop life)||Unknown/Controversial: Some scientists assert this value should be close to 100% based on evidence that life on Earth began almost as soon as conditions were right; others counter that the value is likely tiny given we have no evidence of life developing beyond Earth.|
|fi||1 (100% of these planets will develop intelligent life)||Unknown/Controversial: Like fl, we only have the single case of Earth from which to infer values, leading to disagreement among scientists.|
|fc||0.1–0.2 (10–20% will be able to communicate)||Unknown|
Ultimately, we do not have reliable estimates for several of the factors of the Drake Equation, meaning the results for N can vary wildly. Proponents of the Rare Earth hypothesis conclude that there is only one planet with intelligent life in the galaxy (and perhaps in the entire universe) — Earth.4 On the opposite end of the spectrum, scientists using larger values for the unknown factors in the Drake Equation have estimated there could be as many as 36.4 million radio-transmitting civilization in our Milky Way galaxy.
A bit longer than one week ago, Stu (of Eunoia) posted Class of 66 Physicists' Reunion :-) concerning his trip to attend "...the 48th reunion of the Class of 66 at City University (London,UK) where 10 of us who had all finished a B.Sc.(Hons) in Physics in 1966...." Stu included several photos of the campus - to which I commented, "Your surroundings were certainly a lot classier in university than those in which I found myself. It looks like a wonderful campus and environs." I scrounged around to find photos to illustrate the campus on which I spent my first 3.5 years of college. Finding few (I don't know where the rest of them are hiding - in the basement, somewhere, undoubtedly), I resorted to the internet for some of the photos, below.
Let's begin with the mascot of our school - Joe Miner - from my day, and from sometime later.
This is the image of a post card that shows most of the permanent buildings on the campus of University of Missouri School of Mines & Metallurgy (MSM). I'm guessing that the photos were taken about 10 years before my arrival on campus. (I arrived in September of 1955.)
Here's a view looking down the main "avenue" of buildings.
The nearest building, as I recall, housed the ceramics and mining engineering departments. The only classes that I attended in it were classes on x-ray crystallography (a few meetings during my first semester of solid-state physics). The next building housed the administrative offices and library. In the upper right background is Norwood Hall - home to the geology, electrical engineering, and physics departments. Below is a more recent photo with a point-of-view at about 180 degrees from the above photo.
The building on the far left of the above photo was the mechanical engineering building. Not visible between that building and the domed-roof building is a small building that housed the cafeteria. I never ate at the cafeteria because it was for feeding those who lived in the dormitories. There was no dormitory for women. While single, I lived (at different times) in apartments that had been sectioned off in a large old house - across the street from the football field.
Below is a more recent and better photo of the mechanical engineering building. Note the smokestack to the left of the building - serving the powerplant from which heat was distributed to the buildings on campus. There was no such thing as air conditioned buildings on campus in those days. The smokestack will figure in a later tale.
I was happy to find the above photo of Norwood Hall, since I couldn't find the ones that I had taken. When I was at MSM, the geology, electrical engineering, and physics departments shared the building. Some of the electrical engineering classes that I took were held in other buildings - including, temporary wooden buildings that had been placed on campus during WWII which were designated as T-1 through T-4.
Below is a 2011 photo of students on campus. When I was on campus, two women meeting while walking between classes was an event! Look at all of the women, now! (I've no idea what the buildings are, their having been added at some point since we left in early 1959!)
The name of the school has changed at least twice since Hunky Husband and I were there. At one time it became University of Missouri at Rolla. More recently, the name was changed to that given in the photo, below.
I had my annual physical this morning - 2nd time seeing my new Internist at KUSM-Wichita. Part of the routine was, as usual, carried out by a 3rd year Med student. She will make a good physician, I think. However, she was required to go over a couple of pieces of paper with me that were a hoot: 1) "targets" for good health that I should observe and 2) depression screening.
1) Self Care Plan for hyperlipidemia: "Targets" included weight (I already weigh less than the bottom of the range), blood pressure (my systolic is 14 above goal; diastolic is 6 below goal), LDL (I don't know what it is today - they just drew the blood!) but last year my LDL was 20 points below the goal; exercise (I already do more than goal); and dietary calories (I'm pretty well on or under goal). Oh! And they want blood pressure measurements daily. Are they kidding me?!!
2) Depression screening: I told them that the screening given last year was pretty silly - that I am not depressed, do not plan to kill myself (but, it's none of their business if I did - lol). We chatted for a few minutes, but did not fill in the questionnaire.
No, I don't want another colonoscopy (the one 20 years ago found exactly nothing). No, I don't want another bone density test (if my bones were brittle I would be breaking bones with my falls). No, just because you think you hear a little heart murmur (pulmonary valve you say? Usually, I've been told it might be mitral and/or aortic) does not mean I want another echocardiogram (the one 20 years ago showed no abnormalities).
The physician doesn't think that I come see her often enough. I think annually is too often. As long as I get my low-dose statin and hydrochlorothiazide RXs, I'll be happy to leave the physicians to their own devices. I let her know that I consider myself to be responsible for my health/lack thereof and she shouldn't worry her pretty little head. (Well...that's what I was thinking.) Dr G seems to be a dedicated physician and I'm sure that some of her elderly patients need a lot of testing and hand-holding. I've tried to, somewhat gently, let her know that I do not fall into that category.
For some years, now, I've haranged against people's using cell phones and gps systems while driving - hands-free or not. Either way, reasoned I, the brain is cluttered with too many things to think about at the same time.
Within the past couple of days, I've seen and heard reports of a study that showed that hands-free cell phone use could be just as (or more) distracting than using a cell phone hands-on. Especially distracting, they say, is using voice commands while driving. I can attest to this. My car accepts voice commands; but, in the nine months during which I've driven this car, I've used voice commands exactly once! (That time, I was just making sure that the system worked - a check out, if you will.)
Although this new study agrees pretty much with what I've been saying (Don't I love saying, "I told you so!") it caused me to do a small amount of additional research. The first thing I came up with was Linguistics 201: Language and the Brain. It points out that, "Tests have demonstrated increased neural activity in parts of the left hemisphere [of the brain] when subjects are using language." Let's see, now, what else keeps the left hemisphere of the brain busy? "The left hemisphere, on the other hand, came to control patterns that progress step-by-step in a single dimension, such as our sense of time progression, or the logical steps required in performing feats of manual dexterity...." This, I believe, includes the process of driving a motor vehicle.
BTW: I had read, and now understand a little better, that listening to instrumental music did not tend to distract drivers. I understand it a little better now after reading that, "...in modern humans, artistic ability tends to be centered in various areas of the right hemisphere." Non-linguistic music does not, therefore, tend to tie up the same resources in the brain as driving does.
Those of you who are well versed on the human brain (and remember more of what you've learned, no doubt) already know all of this. (I didn't get the message, telepathically!)
From Piled Higher and Deeper (PHD Comics)®
Ingineer66, in a comment to the next previous posting, brought attention to the fact that there are all sorts of wells. In particular, he mentioned waste injection wells. Herein, below, is information concerning injection wells - gleaned from the US Environmental Protection Agency's website. If wells bore you to tears, you should be forgiven for moving along without reading further. For those still reading, by following the links for each of the six classes of wells, below, one may find explanations as to how the owners/operators of wells are to protect drinking water sources from pollution.
Side Comment: Considering the history of earthquakes in Colorado that have been ascribed to fracking, I was surprised by the number of such operations I saw being set up along I-25, north of Denver CO, on a recent trip to visit Elder Brother.
What is a Class I well? Class I wells inject hazardous and non-hazardous wastes into deep, isolated rock formations that are thousands of feet below the lowermost USDW.
Class I Injection Wells - Isolate hazardous, industrial and municipal wastes through deep injection.
Class I wells are used mainly by the following industries:
There are approximately 550 Class I wells in the United States. The geology of the Gulf Coast and the Great Lakes area is best suited for these types of wells, and most Class I wells are found in these regions.
What are the types of Class I wells? Class I wells are classified as either hazardous, non-hazardous industrial, municipal, or radioactive depending on the characteristics of the fluid injected. The construction, permitting, operating, and monitoring requirements are more stringent for Class I hazardous wells than for the other types of injection wells.
The four types of Class I wells are:
What is a Class II well? Class II wells inject fluids associated with oil and natural gas production. Most of the injected fluid is salt water (brine), which is brought to the surface in the process of producing (extracting) oil and gas. In addition, brine and other fluids are injected to enhance (improve) oil and gas production. The approximately 144,000 Class II wells in operation in the United States inject over 2 billion gallons of brine every day. Most oil and gas injection wells are in Texas, California, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Class II Wells - Inject oil and gas production related wastes. Visit the Class II Wells page to read more about these wells.
What are the types of Class II wells? Three types of Class II injection wells are associated with oil and natural gas production.
What is a Class III well? Class III wells inject fluids to dissolve and extract minerals such as uranium, salt, copper, and sulfur. More than 50 percent of the salt and 80 percent of the uranium extraction in the United States involves the use of Class III injection wells. There are about 165 mining sites with approximately 18,500 Class III wells in operation across the nation.
Class III Wells - Minimize environmental impacts from solution mining operations. Visit the Class III Wells page to read more about these wells.
What are the types of Class III wells? Class III wells are used to mine uranium, salt, copper, and sulfur.
Uranium in-situ leaching (ISL) is the most common method by which uranium is extracted in the United States. A typical uranium mining operation requires injection, extraction, and monitoring wells. The process includes the following steps: Injection wells are drilled into the formation containing the uranium.
The majority of Class III wells in the United States are uranium ISL wells.
Salt solution mining wells inject clean water to dissolve the salt and the resulting brine (salt water) is pumped to the surface where the salt is extracted. Two methods are used:
If the salt is contained in a dome, a single well typically is used. If the salt is contained in multiple, bedded layers, multiple injection wells are used. Salt solution mining wells make up 5 percent of the Class III wells.
What is a Class IV well?
Class IV wells are shallow wells used to inject hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above a geologic formation that contains a USDW. In 1984, EPA banned the use of Class IV injection wells for disposal of hazardous or radioactive waste. Now, these wells may only be operated as part of an EPA- or state-authorized ground water clean-up action. There are about 32 waste clean-up sites with Class IV wells in the United States.
Class V wells are used to inject non-hazardous fluids underground. Most Class V wells are used to dispose of wastes into or above underground sources of drinking water and can pose a threat to ground water quality, if not managed properly. This website provides information on recognizing the different types of Class V wells and the threats they pose. This website also provides information about:
Most Class V wells are shallow disposal systems that depend on gravity to drain fluids directly in the ground. There are over 20 well subtypes that fall into the Class V category and these wells are used by individuals and businesses to inject a variety of non-hazardous fluids underground. EPA estimates that there are more than 650,000 Class V wells in operation nationwide. Most of these Class V wells are unsophisticated shallow disposal systems that include storm water drainage wells, cesspools, and septic system leach fields. However, the Class V well category also includes more complex wells that are typically deeper and often used at commercial or industrial facilities.
Other more sophisticated Class V well types could include aquifer storage and recovery wells or geothermal electric power wells that are used to inject geothermal fluids extracted from subsurface hydrothermal systems. Complex Class V wells also include wells that are used for pilot geologic sequestration (GS) projects that are experimental in nature. On 12/10/10, the Agency finalized regulations for GS projects. These new regulations include the creation of a new class of well, Class VI. EPA understands that some of the wells permitted as Class V experimental technology wells may no longer be used for experimental purposes.
Following the final rule, Class V wells that are not being used for experimental purposes must be re-permitted as Class VI wells and will be subject to Class VI requirements. Please see the links below for further information.
Regardless of the use of a Class V well, owners and operators are responsible for protecting underlying ground water from contamination by the fluids they inject. Ninety percent of America's public water systems draw their water from ground water sources.
Class VI wells are wells used for injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into underground subsurface rock formations for long-term storage, or geologic sequestration. Geologic sequestration refers to a suite of technologies that may be deployed to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere to help mitigate climate change. (For information about geologic sequestration and climate change, see EPA's Geologic Sequestration and Climate Change pages)
This past July, I posted Another Earthquake about a small earthquake that I had felt, here at home. Since then, I believe there have been two or three earthquakes that have been centered in Kansas rather than Oklahoma. While eating lunch, this afternoon, I felt yet another one. I'm still blaming the oil industry; but, who actually knows?
Here is the summary just posted by USGS (United States Geological Survey). Unfortunately, I can't get the map to play nicely with my software; but, the link should work. [BTW: While I was posting this, another earthquake occurred with an epicenter about 4 miles distant from the one I felt. I did not feel the 2nd, weaker (3.4) earthquake.]
37.242°N 97.904°W depth=5.0km (3.1mi)